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Social Work, Tasks Of Social Worker


Social Work, Tasks Of Social Worker
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Social Work, Tasks Of Social Worker

Social Work

As a professional activity, Zastrow (1999:24) suggests that social work is based on the framework of knowledge (body of knowledge), the framework of values (body of value), and the framework of expertise (body of skill).

Tan and Envall (2000:5) define social work, as follows:

Social work is a way to encourage problem solving related to humanitarian relations, social change, human empowerment and liberation, and the improvement of society. Using theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes at the point (or situation) in which people interact with their environment. The principles of human rights and social justice are essential to social work.

According To O.Connor, (2003:1):

Social work practice seeks to promote human well-being and to redress human suffering and injustice. Practitioners aim to mobilize the force of the individual, community and state to address the process by which individuals and groups are marginalized or diminished in their capacity to participate as citizens


Social Work, Tasks Of Social Worker

Social Work

Some principles of social work, namely:

1. Acceptance means that a social worker must accept the client as he is, understand the way the client thinks, the values of the client, the various needs of the client and the client's feelings;

2. Non-judgemental, meaning that a social worker should not be prejudiced against the client, should not judge the client from the negative side, but see the client from his strength-based side;

3. Individualization, meaning that a social worker must address and appreciate the unique nature and behavior of clients. Because every client who has different character traits between clients with one another;

4. Self-Determination is the freedom to make decisions by the client. It is important for the client to choose the right decision according to himself. So the role of social workers here is to provide the best views, opinions and solutions. But it is the client who decides what is best for him;

5. Genuine / congruence, meaning that in this case a social worker must be himself, not be a made-up person as well as personal selflessness when doing social work practices;

6. Controlling emotional involvement, means that social workers are able to be objective and neutral. So a peksos in this case must promote empathy from his sympathy, must be able to control himself in responding to the client, understand the client's situation and view the client's response as a natural thing by looking at the situation and conditions faced by the client; and

7. Confidentiality: social workers must keep confidential information about the identity, the content of conversations with clients, the opinions of other professionals or case records about the client. The seven principles are the foundation as well as the limits of social work in intervening with its clients in accordance with the settings found.


Social Work, Tasks Of Social Worker

Social Work

Suharto (2008:114) mentioned that there are several social work settings that can be considered in providing assistance to clients, namely:

1. Family and Child Services. The activities carried out can be: family strengthening, family counseling, child maintenance and adoption, daily care, prevention of neglect and domestic violence.

2. Health and rehabilitation. Activities carried out in the form of: patient assistance in hospitals, community health development, mental health, vocational rehabilitation, rehabilitation of drug and alcohol addicts, assistance to PLWHA, Harm Reduction Programs.

3. Community Development. Activities carried out in the form of: Social Planning, community organizing, neighborhood revitalization, environmental care, social resilience, strengthening social and small economic capital.

4. Social protection. Activities carried out in the form of: Social Insurance Scheme, social assistance, social fund, social safety net.

5. Emergency services. The activities carried out are: aid organization, crisis management, information and referral, refugee integration, community early warning development.

6. School social work. Activities carried out in the form of: school adjustment counseling, student behavior management, tuition allowance management, organizing student lunches, increasing family and community participation in education.

7. Industrial social work. Activities carried out in the form of: employee assistance programs, handling stress and burn-out, job placement and relocation, Retirement Planning, Corporate Social Responsibility.


Social Work, Tasks Of Social Worker

Social Work

Dolgoof and Feldstein (2007:4) state that, “Social welfare is all social interventions intended to enhance or maintain the social functioning of human beings. Social work is a professional occupation that delivers social welfare services”.


Social workers have a code of ethics when practicing both in social services to individual groups, communities, and communities. Social worker practices include micro (social workers perform practices to solve individual or individual problems), mezzo (social workers practice solving family and other small group problems), macro (social workers perform practices to solve larger group problems and work with organizations or communities to make social change and social policies).


Social Work, Tasks Of Social Worker

Social Work

Next Is J. Marbun (2011:154) describes several variables that determine the role of professional social workers, namely:

1. A dualistic approach to social work: change and personal development, and change and development as a whole.

2. The functions of Social Work Practice are interrelated: prevention by developing research, analysis, preparation and development of social welfare policies, programs and services

2. As an enabler

This role is often used in the profession of social workers because it is an early concept of empowerment. Social workers focus on the ability, capacity, and competence of the client or recipient of services to help themselves. Peksos will identify goals, facilitate communication, cohesive and synergize relationships, and provide opportunities for problem solving/conflict resolution.

3. As a mediator

Social Workers Act to seek agreement, promote reconciliation of differences, to reach a satisfactory agreement, and to intervene on the parts in conflict, including discussing all issues in a compromising and persuasive manner.

The role of social workers is to help resolve conflicts between two or more systems, resolve disputes between families and clients/ recipients of services, and obtain the rights of victims.

4. As a lawyer (Advocate)

The term advocate (defender) is derived from the legal profession. However, the role of advocates in social work is different from advocates in the legal realm. Advocates in the realm of social work are limited by interests arising from clients or recipients of services.

Social workers will act as spokespersons, explain and argue about the problems of clients or recipients of services if necessary, defend the interests of victims to ensure the source system, provide services needed, or change system policies that are not responsive to the interests of victims.

5. As a member of (conference)

The role of the social worker includes exploration and clear understanding of the problem, linking and emphasizing assessments that constitute a single problem, designing goals to reduce pressure, creating common alternative strategies, evaluating results, implementing strategies and terminating or terminating services.

The skills required in the consultant role are common skills used in social work practice such as listening skills, probing, reinforcement/reflection, and others.

6. As a guardian

The profession of social worker can protect clients or recipients of services, and people at high risk of social life. Thus the client or recipient of the service will feel comfortable to express his problem, release the burden of his mind, and so on.

7. As facilitator

Facilitators are tasked with helping clients or service recipients to participate, contribute, engage in New expertise, and formulate agreements that have been reached together (Parson, et al. 1994:12).

Social workers provide social services in accordance with the needs and problems faced by clients or recipients of services. This is so that the client or recipient of the service can think well about what is needed during the intervention process.

8. As an initiator

According to Zastrow, the initiator is a role that gives attention to problems or things that have the potential to be a problem (2000:75).

9. As negotiator

This role is mostly performed on clients or service recipients who experience conflicts and require problem solving by compromise. The goal is to achieve a favorable agreement between both parties so that it can be used to solve problems faced by clients or service recipients. Nevertheless, the position of the initiator is only in one of the parties to the conflict, in contrast to the position of the mediator, who must be neutral betweenthe parties


Social Work, Tasks Of Social Worker

Social Work


Dolgoff, Ralph & Feldstein, Donald. 2007. Understanding Social Welfare: a Search for Social Justice. Boston: Pearson.

Marbun, J. 2011. Social Work Strategies in dealing with contemporary issues. Part of the book “Social Work in Indonesia: history and dynamics of its development."Yogyakarta: Blue Ocean.

O'connor, Ian, 2003. Social Work and Social Care Practice. London: Sage Publications.

Parsons, J. Ruth., Jorgensen James D., Hernandez, Santos H. 1994. The Integration of Social Work Practice. Pacific Grove: Broke/Cole.

Sheafor, Bradford W., & Horejsi, Charles R. 2003. Techniques and guidelines for Social Work Practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Soelaiman, Holil. 2011. Social Work Practice and education (history and future).

Part of the book “Social Work in Indonesia: history and dynamics of its development."Yogyakarta: Blue Ocean.

Suharto, Edi. 2008. Social policy as Public Policy: the role of Social Welfare Development and Social Work in realizing the Welfare State in Indonesia. Bandung: CV. Alfabeta.

Tan, Ngoh-Tiong & Envall, Ellis. 2000. Social Work: Challenges in the New millennium. Switzerland: IFSW Press.

Zastrow, Charles H. 1999. The Practice of Social Work. Pacific Grove: Brooks / Cole.


Derizon Yazid. Indonesia lacks 155 thousand social workers / indonesia-shortage-of-155-thousand-social-workers, retrieved 13 July 2013.


Law Number 11 of 2009 on

Social Welfare

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